This homogenization, consequently, indicates the standard consumption not only in urban centres but also in rural centres. What may follow from this major change in the production system and consumption could jeopardize the maintenance of local life but it could also turn out that the relationship between rural and urban translates into different modes of relationships related to the market, as well as the varied historical contexts and the accessibility that each group has over food [ 1 - 4 ].
Themes approached over decades will be outlined and summarized for a general understanding about how the Anthropology of Food underwent social, industrial and political development over time in Brazil. Since the s until the mid s it dominated social orientation of food in state policy and in the performed studies. This tendency reversed to a technical orientation, between and as the outcome of political, economic and power structure modifications in the Brazilian State, with repercussions on the contributions from social scientists, social nutritionists and from the anthropology itself.
In this period, the Social Sciences Group from the National Study of Household Expense, performed by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, developed family research, a national scope, with the objective of extracting data on household budgets and food consumption and, thus, the nutritional status of these families.
The research performed between and reported the budget distribution, taking into consideration the expense priorities of each group. Therefore, with the calculation accomplished by the research, it is possible to disclose the nutritional values ingested by each member [ 20 ].
The cultural dimension on studies about the Anthropology of food in Brazil was important for approaching empirical and descriptive aspects [ 21 ]. The first studies in the s centered on the so-called "traditional" communities focused on the cultural dimension expressed in all social sectors such as the beliefs or ideas of some people. However, like the evolutionist understood, the "traditional" was seen as a delay or obstacle to changes, separating "traditional" and "modern" cultural patterns.
In addition, the importance of woman's role in food preparation was noticed and, with that, the centrality they exercised at the time in the kitchen.
Therefore, taboos related to femininity and nutrition appeared and categories between "hot", "cold", "light" or "heavy", among others, explained the relation between social and belief. Although these categories encompass regional and individual variability, the cognitive regularity of categories in the popular theory that embodies the relation between food system and organic system, extensive to diseases and cosmologic categories day, night; sun, moon; rational, emotional, and others is subject of many criticisms [ 6 , 22 ].
These studies provided a better understanding of taboos and beliefs that impose certain rules for the moment of food consumption, like the constraint of food for pregnant or menstruating woman. Those studies concluded that the food supply of the subsistence economy and the income identified different caloric values for different social classes, namely, diets with proper protein and vitamin levels, for example, only contemplated economically favored layers. Subsequently, the first studies that looked at culture as a closed, functional and isolated system were developed and better structured.
Questions related to survival and the relation of the individual in nature was posed. Culture was perceived as susceptible to transformations, highlighting the development of capitalism and new technologies. In other words, "the formation of taste in different cultures, status, prestige, advertisement pressure, religion, and the many aspects that guide food choices" [ 2 ] combine in different contexts and make culture dynamic.
The first studies focusing on shifts in feeding habits due to urbanization, development of the agroindustry, and the entry of woman in the marketplace were in the s. It is in this period that Brazil had its greatest boom in national industry, presenting a policy of development and aiming for the implementation of heavy and durable industry [ 2 ].
Facing these contextual changes, the aim was to comprehend and monitor structural transformations of the context. By keeping track of variations in the nutrition field, the researchers noted the difficulty in maintaining traditional ways of nutrition. However, it was from the s that studies in urban areas were promoted and developed in Brazil; a period of intensification of the urbanization, modifying the social structure, the formation of metropolises and the development of jobs in urban areas.
These aspects were important for the creation of postgraduate courses and broader reflections on the theme in the social sciences. Malnutrition was also another area of interest at the time, motivating government politics of nutrition and food.
Government funding agencies and the institutionalization of social sciences and broad academic production consolidated Anthropology and the development of studies related to nutrition. Research that tackled food organizations and consumption within families and, also, focused on survival strategies and priorities of household budget, could pinpoint the importance of nutrition as a basic component facing the organization and decisions of consumption. These studies performed directly with the population under economic bias could describe situations and design projects with the Brazilian government.
Other studies include the change of the Brazilian diet, so that Brazilians reduced the consumption of cereals and tubers, replaced carbohydrates with lipids and exchanged vegetable proteins for animal proteins. In this new configuration, the Brazilian diet included much more soda.
Even the scientists who conduct this sort of research conduct it in the knowledge that people lie about their food intake all the time. A short essay about junk food assignment custom writing fast entry level service worker resume job key points call. Eat food. One way to understand… Words - Pages One controversial and relevant topic within nutritional science, as well as food science in is the difference between organic and conventional food. Still, I do think escape is possible, to which end I can now revisit — and elaborate on, but just a little — the simple principles of healthy eating I proposed at the beginning of this essay, several thousand words ago. Take into account the balance of foods eaten, so that it works on different types and contains more than one food element, so that the body to get all the elements of the same proportions.
The result of this diet is an increase in obesity and chronic degenerative diseases. In addition to this, theories about nutrition as a symbolic and cognitive part in a line of thought that defines relations between organisms and food are elaborated. Therefore, feeding habits could be categorized, not globally, like logics related to economic rationality, to access, to food selection, factors which, alone, were insufficient to be explained, since nutrition is a cultural phenomenon, a holder of symbolic and cognitive substance related to social classifications, the perception of a human organism and the relations between said human and the substances ingested, active by means of a knowledge system and ordering principles that address the relation between food and the organism [ 1 , 20 ].
It is possible, in this way, to see the continuity and progress of the themes deliberated around nutrition according to the course of time and topics in vogue. With this, subject matters on income and food supply were associated with the nutritional value of the studied populations, revealing the precarious living conditions of the working class. The rekindled concerns of those scientists with the deterioration of life and health conditions of the working class, while capitalist expressions in expansion in the country, whose "miraculous" effects settled on capital monopolization and internationalization, on industrial expansion of selected sectors, on a broader adequacy of agriculture to monopoly capital, affecting the agricultural production pattern and income concentration, to the detriment of the working class.
Interestingly, Bleil [ 2 ] noted that not only has food culture been altered over the decades, but it has thus been nutritionally impoverished. In addition to the industrialized products, cassava and maize were also exchanged for the use of wheat, encouraged by the Brazilian government. Along with advertisements, the products sold in big supermarket chains were seducing the population and thus configuring the area of food supply introduced by the Brazilian government. In a country where hunger is still a serious public health problem, this has made the situation of a large segment of the population worse.
In addition, the consumer pays more. The price of bread, for example, is proportionally greater than that of cornmeal porridge.
It is interesting to note that it has already been suggested to introduce maize in the preparation of commercialized bread, in order to reduce the price. However, portions of the population were absolutely against this measure. They supported wheat without knowing how recently it was introduced in the country's food history.
Therefore, with the ever-growing industrialization and globalization, habits and the way food is accessed changed, and a new nutrition pattern was defined one that now is characterized by high quantities of animal fat, protein, salt and sugar, in addition to low quantities of fiber, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, among others making food a mere industrial product.
Moreover, these industrialized products, rich in fats, are just as harmful to health as to the environment, still being marketed as a symbol of modernity. This is how food and culture - is influenced by the accelerated process of industrialization. These changes affect the quality of the food produced.
New expectations arise while food choices must be more in line with the new lifestyle, unfortunately missing nutritional inputs from the previous dietary pattern. The modern mentality affects one's own eating habits, responding to new social pressures, selecting, consuming and using the new produced and available food. Time and aesthetic optimization to those favored groups in Brazil.
The studies performed in the s refer, in addition to the issues raised above, to internationalization and industrial food monopoly of the United States of America. Industrialization, therefore, brought frozen foods and fast food to Brazilian metropolises, acquiring a new configuration, giving new meaning to food in the modern era and translating the new symbolisms in society [ 22 ].
The demand for fast food or eating out marks the moment that the labor fragmentation of people lives took control of meal time. Working in new urban centers has distanced people from their homes. Although the development in transport followed the evolution of other sectors, the rigidity of working hours made displacement difficult. Eating became a mechanical and careless action, which prevented the sensual and aesthetic appreciation of food [ 10 ]. Therefore, solutions were sought for this problem of time, in which fast food became a reasonable alternative to home-cooked meals, by sacrificing the pleasure of the ritual [ 2 , 10 ].
It was already possible to find frozen, precooked, flavoured, stuffed food in Brazilian grocery stores, characterized by multinational companies, replacing public markets with fresh food. This new model of food marketing demonstrates an even stronger separation between food and consumer, where the food processing becomes a mystery and the population only sees the final product, which means an entirely new view of the world and thus of the way of consuming food.
This new model of food marketing demonstrates the even more incisive division between food and consumer, in which food processing becomes a mystery and the population only sees the final product, which means an entire new world view and, therefore, food consumption. However, it is important to emphasize that, currently, organs propose to carry out the meal from eating regularly and with attention, in appropriate environments and with company, in order to improve eating habits and to break with the modern food model. The benefits of adopting these guidelines are many, including better food digestion, more efficient control of how much we eat, greater opportunities to spend time with our family and friends, greater social interaction and, in general, better enjoyment of food [ 21 ].
This new food system limits the time dedicated to household supply and, in consequence, the preparation of meals using healthy food. Therefore, this new Brazilian food standard is characterized by an increase in the consumption of industrialized products [ 2 , 12 - 17 ]. While in the old days, when eating, people ate unprocessed natural food, whereas what they eat today is foodlike edible substances; nowadays it is clear that the time factor, allied with the process of urbanization and food industrialization, has contributed, directly, to changes of feeding habits, making people abandon homemade, and traditional, food and stick to what the grocery store provides, in other words, ready-cooked meals, and restaurant chains that serve fast-food [ 10 ].
Time optimization becomes a priority of modern life in large urban centres, redefining dining spaces and minimizing the importance of ritual, in which the modern individual exchanges lunch for a sandwich and soda, consuming them alone and standing in a snack bar.
The affection existing in the meals among friends and family gives place to the satisfaction due to the quantity of food ingested in front of the television [ 2 ]. In addition to studies related to food industrialization, research oriented towards health and diseases that permeated dichotomous notions between weakness and strength, where the weakness was recalled in physical and mental aspects equally.
The idea that food should first have to do with the health of the body is relatively new and, I think, destructive it destroys not only the pleasure of eating, which would be rather bad, but also, paradoxically, our health. In fact, there are no people in the world who are more concerned about health and the health consequences of their food choices than we Americans - and there are no people who have so many diet-related health problems.
We are becoming a nation of orthopraxis: people with an unhealthy obsession for healthy eating. Additionally, western medical care started to be emphasized, which makes physical activity and weight loss desired by the population, being for health or aesthetic purposes. In this respect, the aspiration for consumption of healthy, natural food is pursued by the middle and upper classes so they can achieve the desired body aesthetic and individual well-being. Health reassurance contained an argument about the harm of certain food contaminated, fat, high in cholesterol on the organism, linking to the origin of cardiac diseases, while the benefits of "healthy eating" refer to ingestion of fruits and vegetables, for their "vitamin" concentrating nature, still validating a slim and thin body, as aesthetic values of middle and upper classes, in contrast to the validation of a fat, "strong" body, always falling back on representations of the body of the working class, according to several studies that mention it [ 9 , 21 ].
Therefore, taking into consideration the desire of acquiring healthy food and also, the concern of sparse access to food, the subject of food security started to grow amongst academic studies and governmental applications. A focal point in this discussion is a reminder that after World War II, hunger started to spread across the planet. A brief green revolution agriculture condition chinese gmos pros cons.
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