Supreme Court case, Pollock v.
When this amendment was passed by Congress in , it was naturally controversial. It took several years and significant changes in the country's economic and political situation before it was finally ratified in This amendment has caused some consternation for the judicial system, as it has become the lightning rod for challenges by "tax protestors", citizens who believe that the amendment was not correctly ratified. These individuals often file lawsuits claiming that the government does not have the power to tax incomes. Amendment The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.
Before this amendment's adoption in , senators were elected by state legislatures, which led to perceived corruption in state politics and a movement to allow citizens to directly elect their senators. The amendment passed with little opposition, but it had the unintended result of causing confusion about how to replace senators who left office before the end of their terms. Consequently, there have been several efforts to repeal the amendment entirely. Also known as Prohibition , the 18th Amendment was adopted in after many years of advocacy by the temperance movement. Even before the amendment's passage, many states enacted bans on alcohol within their borders.
This is the only amendment to be completely repealed by the 21st Amendment in The 19th Amendment was ratified in after a decades-long woman's suffrage movement. The key part of this amendment is its requirement that every state allow women to vote. Prior to this, while several states already allowed women to vote, many others did not. The amendment overruled an U. Supreme Court case, Minor v. Happersett , which had held that the 14th Amendment did not require states to allow women to vote. The 20th amendment was ratified in Before it took effect, there was no exact date set for when Congress must convene or for the beginning and ending of terms of service.
This amendment removed that uncertainty. Amendments Amendment Section 1. This amendment, ratified in , repealed the amendment imposing Prohibition.
It invalidated the federal laws banning alcohol and returned to the states the power to set their own alcohol regulations. It is the only amendment that directly repeals another amendment. Before the adoption of this amendment in , there were no legal restrictions on how many terms a president could serve. Although it was customary to serve no more than twice, several presidents had run for third terms, but none had succeeded.
It wasn't until President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected to unprecedented third and fourth terms that the 22nd Amendment was proposed and ratified. There have been multiple attempts to repeal this amendment, but none have been passed by Congress. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.
Adopted in , this amendment granted residents of the District of Columbia the right to participate in presidential and vice-presidential elections.
Prior to this, only states were allowed to vote for electors to send to the Electoral College. In , an amendment was proposed that would have repealed the 23rd Amendment and given the District of Columbia full representation in both houses of Congress and the Electoral College.
This amendment was not adopted.
The 24th Amendment, r atified in , was intended to prevent southern states from forcing poor voters to choose between paying an often unaffordable tax and losing their right to vote. While most Americans respected the law, were in favor of the law, the shine of "dry" began to wear off, especially as the Great Depression set in. A movement began to form to repeal the 18th Amendment. Prohibition of alcohol was seen as an affront to personal liberty, pushed on the nation by religious moralists. Alcohol was also seen as a source of revenue for the local and national governments.
Ratified in , the 15th Amendment granted African American men the right to vote. This guide provides access to digital collections at the. Read Interpretations of The Fifteenth Amendment. Learn More. More about 15th Amendment Explore key historical documents that inspired the Framers of the.
The effort to elect "wet" legislators was as grand as that to elect "dry" ones almost two decades earlier. The Congress passed the amendment on February 20, days. It mandated, for the first time, that conventions of the states were to vote on the amendment, rather than the legislatures, feeling that conventions would be more apt to vote to ratify - and they did, quickly — the ratification process was complete on December 5, The 21st Amendment repealed the 18th, the first time an amendment had been repealed by another.
Washington had been asked to run for a third term in , but he made it quite clear that he had no intention of doing so; that an orderly transition of power was needed to set the Constitution in stone. And so it was for almost years. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was first elected President in , and re-elected in When it came time for the Democrats to nominate a candidate for the Presidency in , two things had happened. First, the Republicans had made great gains in Congress in the elections. And Hitler happened. Europe was in the throes of a great war, with trouble in the Pacific, too.
A change away from Roosevelt, who had led the nation through the Great Depression, did not seem wise. He was nominated for an unprecedented third term, and won. It was not a landslide victory, however, and it is debatable that FDR would have had a third term had it not been for the war.
When rolled around, changing leaders in the middle of World War II, which the United States was now fully engaged in, also seemed unwise, and FDR ran for and was elected to, a fourth term. Though FDR's leadership was seen by many as a key reason that the U. Specifically excepting Truman from its provisions, the 22nd Amendment passed Congress on March 21, After Truman won a second term in , it was ratified on February 27, 1, days. Truman could have run for a third term, but bowed out early before campaigning began. When first established, it was a town of , and it was assumed that it would be the center of government, and not a population center.
But by , over a quarter of a million people lived within its bounds. Since it is a federal district, however, and not a state, the inhabitants not only had no real local government, they had no vote in the federal government either. By , when , people lived in Washington, D.
As citizens, they were required to pay taxes and to serve in the military, but a vote in the Presidential election was available only to the states. It is important to note that the 23rd Amendment does not make Washington, D. It also did not provide full representation in Congress for the District. The Congress passed the amendment on June 17, ; the amendment was ratified on March 29, days. With most methods for keeping the black vote to a minimum declared unconstitutional, several Southern states found an answer — the poll tax.
The poll tax has a long history, and was often used in Europe to raise funds.
In , an amendment was proposed that would have repealed the 23rd Amendment and given the District of Columbia full representation in both houses of Congress and the Electoral College. Although this change was proposed as early as , the movement to finally pass it grew out of the perceived unfairness of 18 to year-old men being eligible to be drafted into service in the Vietnam War, but ineligible to vote. Explore This Park. National Convention of the Colored Men of America. Still, enough states approved the Fifteenth Amendment that it was adopted in The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Still, the Voting Rights Act of gave African-American voters the legal means to challenge voting restrictions and vastly improved voter turnout.
With a poll tax, in order to vote, a certain tax must be paid. The tax is the same for all, which allowed the generally more affluent white population access to the polls with a minimum of pain, while the generally poorer black population would have trouble justifying trading food on the table for a vote in the ballot box. Worse, different kinds of poll taxes were implemented, some accumulating even if no attempt was made to vote, meaning increasingly higher back-taxes to be paid to gain the vote. In , Congress began to try to get rid of the poll tax, but history was not behind them.
After all, in colonial times and when the Constitution first came into effect, land ownership was often a requirement for suffrage.
Though only five states still had a poll tax by the time the amendment passed Congress, Supreme Court rulings made it doubtful that mere legislation would eliminate the tax altogether. Proposed by Congress on August 27, , the 24th Amendment was ratified within a year and a half, on January 23, days. Eisenhower and his Vice President Richard Nixon entered into an agreement that allowed Nixon to become Acting President while Eisenhower was incapacitated.
The agreement was between the two men and did not have constitutional authority, but it set a precedent that was followed by the following presidents, John Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson. Nothing prepared anyone, however, for the national tragedy of the Kennedy assassination. The assassination shocked the nation in more ways than the obvious. The advancement of medical technology had many hoping that the President could have been saved after being shot.
That was not the case, but if he had been, Kennedy could have been in a coma for an extended period of time, perhaps never able to fully function again. The Eisenhower-Nixon agreement set some things in motion, but was extra-constitutional. The Vice President would be the President, but would not be able to fulfill his duties. The resulting power vacuum would cause a constitutional crisis — who has the power of the Presidency? Less than two years after Kennedy's death, on July 6, , the Congress passed the 25th Amendment , where the line of succession was not only clarified, but what was to be done in the case of presidential disability was addressed.
The selection of a Vice President for an empty Vice Presidential seat was also provided for. The states ratified the amendment on February 10, days. The second clause, dealing with the filling of a vacancy in the Vice Presidency, was used less than six years later when Gerald Ford assumed the Vice Presidency upon the resignation of Spiro Agnew. Draftees into the armed services were any male over the age of There was a seeming dichotomy, however: these young men were allowed, even forced, to fight and die for their country, but they were unable to vote.